Faruk Türk


This article covers the use of the internationalization of higher education as a soft power tool by revisionist countries in international relations. Whereas the common view of scholars is that revisionist forces tend to activate their hard power means as in the case of India about her dispute with Pakistan and Russia against Ukraine, their soft power engagement is tremendously important. While internationalization in higher education was the monopoly of the hegemonic and colonial powers previously, in recent years the progress of revisionist forces in this regard has been noted. Since soft power engagement forms vary with the stunning transformations after the millennium, internationalization of higher education is the latest trend. When examining the published data on international student mobility, we have determined that revisionist powers China, Türkiye, and Russia are among the top ten countries hosting the most international students.


internationalization; internationalization in higher education; hard power; soft power; revisionist forces

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